Your organisation registers identifiers with an external identifier provider such as ARK or DOI. The identifiers point to a resource hosted by your organisation but the identifiers are resolvable via this scheme, rather than an institution specific domain (web address). The resource can be a human readable web page, a machine readable page (e.g. a JSON file), or both. This introduces contractual requirements for persistence and maintenance of access to resources.
Persistence of the identifier depends on both the persistence of the external provider, and on your own organisation's ability to manage your local web pages, so if you change the web site all existing external identifiers will still resolve.
Given the expectation that any identifiers will persist indefinitely, once you have minted identifiers it is difficult to reverse that step. The things you have chosen to identify, and the format of the identifier are decisions that your organisation will potentially have to live with for a long time.
Some external PID providers expect that you will supply metadata for each item identified, so you will need to have tools that can deliver that information.
If you want external identifiers to be used (e.g., cited) then you will need to make sure those identifiers are easily visible, and ideally provide a way for them to be cited.
For more compatible identifiers, see Which persistent identifier does what?
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The Smithsonian uses ARKs to identify its collections and uses the global N2T resolver to provide access to them.
The Natural History Museum assigns DOIs to datasets in their collections including DOIs for queries to datasets held within the portal.
The Irish National Folklore Collection based at University College Dublin mints DOIs for its digitised archive collections.